Saturday, September 7, 2019

Forecasts of torrential rains in Saurashtra and parts of Gujarat

weather of gujrat... heavy rain few days
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that are condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity.  Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the earth.  It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation for water.
  The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts.  If enough moisture and upward motion is present, rain falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) that can organize into narrow rainbands.  In mountainous areas, heavy snow is possible where upslope flow is maximized within the windward sides of the terrain at which elevation forces the condense to moist air and fall out as rain along the sides of the mountains.  On the leeward side of the mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by the downslope flow which causes heating and drying of the air mass.  The movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.

  The urban heat island leads to increased rainfall, both in volume and intensity, in downwind cities.  Global warming is also causing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions throughout eastern North America and drier conditions in the tropics. [Citation needed] Antarctica is the driest continent.  The globally averaged annual rainfall over land is 715 mm (28.1 in), but over the entire earth it is much higher at 990 mm (39 in). [1]  Climate classification systems such as the K√∂ppen classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.  Rainfall is measured using rain gauges.  Rainfall amounts can be estimated by weather radar.
  Heavy rain falling over the desert at sunset

  Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane, neon, sulfuric acid, or even iron rather than water
  Rain falls on a field in southern Estonia
  Air contains water vapor, and the amount of water in a given mass of dry air, known as the mixing ratio, is measured in grams of water per kilogram of dry air (g / kg). [2] [3]  The amount of moisture in the air is also commonly reported as relative humidity;  Which is the percentage of the total water vapor air can hold at a particular air temperature. [4]  How much water vapor a parcel of air can contain before it becomes saturated (100% relative humidity) and forms into a cloud (visible and tiny water and ice particles suspended above the earth's surface) [5] depending on its temperature.  Warmer air can contain more water than vapor than saturated cooler air.  Therefore, one way to saturate a parcel of air is to cool it.  The dew point is the temperature at which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated. [6]
  There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiological cooling, and evaporative cooling.  Adiabatic cooling occurs when air rises and expands. [7]  The air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain (orographic lift).  Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface, [8] usually being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to the colder land.  Radiological cooling occurs due to the infrared radiation of the emission, either by the air or by the surface underneath. [9]  Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reacts saturation.
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